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Marglin, los paradigmas económicos y la movilización social

Publicado el 26/01/2012. Tema(s): ,

Stephen Marglin es posiblemente uno de los economistas más interesantes de finales del siglo pasado. Uno de los trabajos que hicieron de él un economista de renombre es What do bosses do? (se puede descargar desde su página web, aquí) donde, entre otras cosas, introduce en el análisis económico una cuestión fundamental: el papel de las jerarquías en la organización del trabajo.

Según Marglin, la jerarquización en el trabajo permitiría una extracción adecuada de excedente, es decir, sería la pieza clave para que los propietarios de las empresas pueden apropiarse de una proporción adecuada de lo que producen sus empleados. Una proporción adecuada, claro está, para seguir haciendo rentables las inversiones, o lo que es lo mismo, para asegurar la continuidad de la acumulación de capital. Las jerarquías organizativas dentro de las empresas tendrían un papel fundamental, por lo tanto, en la continuidad del sistema capitalista, lo cual confluye con los trabajos de otros autores radicales estadounidenses que han introducido esta cuestión dentro del análisis económico, enriqueciendo así el estudio de las clases sociales.

Marglin es además co-autor, junto con Amit Badhuri, del modelo que lleva el apellido de ambos, el modelo Badhuri-Marglin, dedicado a explicar las interrelaciones entre dinámica de crecimiento y distribución de la renta aunando las explicaciones marxista y post-keynesiana (véase una explicación muy recomendable del modelo aquí y, de forma menos técnica, aquí; el artículo original del que nació el modelo está disponible para su descarga aquí).

Sin embargo, lo que me ha empujado a escribir esta entrada es el descubrimiento hace unos días, cuando buscaba podcasts interesantes, de una charla del propio Stephen Marglin en el marco de los diferentes actos de Occupy Harvard. Esa charla está disponible en vídeo, como podéis ver a continuación y, lo que resulta más interesante, di con ella tras ver en algún sitio un comentario de Greg Mankiw donde decía que “estaba más de acuerdo [con lo dicho por Marglin] de lo que muchos podrían suponer“.

[El podcast está disponible aquí.]

El vídeo es muy interesante por su explicación de cómo habría que enseñar economía de una forma plural, abierta a diferentes enfoques. Pero para mí lo más interesante está al final, que es cuando Marglin describe brevemente la evolución de los paradigmas económicos predominantes durante la mayor parte del siglo XX poniéndola en relación con los acontecimiento sociopolíticos. De ese modo, el paradigma keynesiano no se habría impuesto sin las luchas sindicales de los años veinte y treinta, así como sin el poder de la Unión Soviética, aumentado enormemente al contribuir a la victoria aliada sobre el nazismo. Unos años más tarde, el paradigma monetarista fue contemporáneo de una importante “revolución conservadora” liderada políticamente por actores como Margaret Thatcher o Ronald Reagan, pero también por asociaciones más opacas y diferentes agrupaciones de intereses patronales (esto lo explica muy bien David Harvey en su Breve historia del neoliberalismo). Esta breve sociología del conocimiento económico que él realiza es muy diferente de cómo nos explican en las universidades el paso de unos paradigmas a otros, donde la economía parece no estar relacionada con las estructuras sociales de las que forma parte.

Y ahora, ¿qué? Marglin agradece a los miembros de Occupy Harvard que, junto a otros actores relevantes hoy día como canalizadores de la movilización social en Estados Unidos, estén contribuyendo a la constitución de un nuevo paradigma que aún estaría por hacerse. En España, desde luego, el 15-M -en el que se inspiró, por cierto, Occupy Wall Street, germen de Occupy Harvard-, supone un soplo de aire fresco que, efectivamente, puede ayudar a que se construyan nuevas formas de entender la economía (y esperemos que más adheridas a la realidad que las que están en boga). Precisamente por todo ello, iniciativas como econoNuestra son más que bienvenidas, al ir un paso más allá en la línea señalada por Marglin y tratar de aglutinar abiertamente esfuerzos en paralelo entre militantes y simpatizantes del 15-M e integrantes de la academia con vocación crítica.

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